A minimal shell library for OCaml with lightweight, posix-like syntax.
Feather exposes one type,
Feather.cmd, along with a few building
blocks for creating, composing, and running commands:
You can create new commands from scratch with
val process : string -> string list -> cmd
When passed to
Feather.run, this will spawn a new unix process with
the given executable and arguments. For instance
Feather.process "cat" [ "text.txt" ]
Feather.cmd to cat
text.txt. You can pipe commands
together with the
|. operator, much like
| in bash:
Feather.process "cat" [ "text.txt" ] |. Feather.grep "wow"
How does one run a command? Well it depends on whether you want to use
the output. To run a command without capturing any output, simply use
val run : ?cwd:string -> ?env:(string * string) list -> cmd -> unit
This will block until the command finishes executing. You can also run a
command in the background with
Feather.run_in_background. It will be killed
if it has not finished executing when the parent program terminates.
But if you want to use the process's stdout, stderr or status in OCaml,
Feather.collect will be your friend:
val collect : ?cwd:string -> ?env:(string * string) list -> 'a what_to_collect -> cmd -> 'a
The parameter of type
what_to_collect can be
everything, depending on what should be collected.
let stderr, status = command_1 |> collect stderr_and_status in (* Feather.lines can be used to transform a long string into a list of its lines *) let stdout_lines = command_2 |> collect stdout |> lines in ...
Perhaps the most important feature of Feather is that it lets you use
OCaml within a chain of pipes:
utop# process "ps"  |. map_lines String.uppercase |. grep "BASH" |> collect stdout;; - : string = " 232699 PTS/4 00:00:00 BASH"
Feather also provides a bunch of wrappers around common unix commands
sort, etc. See
feather.mli for the full list.
Lastly, Feather has support for file descriptor redirection, and common
shell chaining operators. Either with functions like
val write_stderr_to : string -> cmd -> cmd val append_stderr_to : string -> cmd -> cmd val and_ : cmd -> cmd -> cmd val or_ : cmd -> cmd -> cmd val sequence : cmd -> cmd -> cmd
or with infix operators in
(* Stdout *) val ( > ) : cmd -> string -> cmd val ( >> ) : cmd -> string -> cmd (* Stderr *) val ( >! ) : cmd -> string -> cmd val ( >>! ) : cmd -> string -> cmd (* Executes second command if first is successful *) val ( &&. ) : cmd -> cmd -> cmd (* Executes second command if first fails *) val ( ||. ) : cmd -> cmd -> cmd (* Executes second command no matter what *) val ( ->. ) : cmd -> cmd -> cmd
This does what you would expect:
open Feather open Feather.Infix echo "hi" > "/tmp/out"
That's pretty much Feather! Below are some examples in full.
Say you wanted to make a quick sentence generator:
for i = 0 to 3 do let output = "/tmp/output" ^ Int.to_string i in cat "/usr/share/dict/words" |. shuf |. head 5 > output |> run; match tr "a-z" "A-Z" < output |> collect stdout |> lines with | [ a; b; c; d; e ] -> (printf "You are a %s %s and I think this is the %s %s of all %s.\n") a b c d e | _ -> failwith "head 5" done; ls "/tmp" |. grep "output" |> run
With the result:
$ make example You are a UNIVERSALIST SPARROWTONGUE and I think this is the TRICHOPHYTIA VARIATION of all ACCLIMATEMENT. You are a NONACCELERATION ERGOISM and I think this is the TENENT ONYMAL of all WINNONISH. You are a DOUGHMAKING UNSCHOLAR and I think this is the CROAKINESS HEARTSICKNESS of all EMOTE. You are a FLIRTER PRECURSOR and I think this is the POTOROUS INTERWEAVING of all INTERSEXUALITY. output0 output1 output2 output3
Or perhaps group files in your home directory by what hour of the day
they were last modified:
let () = let open Core in echo "count hour" |> run; echo "----- ----" |> run; process "ls" [ "-lah" ] |. sed " *" " " |. cut' [ 8 ] |. filter_lines ~f:(fun line -> String.( <> ) line "") |. map_lines ~f:(fun line -> Time.Ofday.of_string line |> Time.Ofday.to_span_since_start_of_day |> Time.Span.to_hr |> Float.to_int |> function | n when n > 12 -> Int.to_string (n - 12) ^ " PM" | n -> Int.to_string n ^ " AM") |. process "sort" [ "-n" ] |. process "uniq" [ "-c" ] |> run
With output: (The first column is how many files were last edited in
that hour timespan.)
$ make example count hour ----- ---- 5 2 PM 3 9 PM 3 10 PM 4 11 PM 1 12 AM 2 1 PM 1 2 PM 3 9 PM 5 10 PM 4 11 PM 1 12 AM
How do I install feather?
Feather is hosted on opam
opam install feather
or you can build it from source
git clone https://github.com/charlesetc/feather cd feather dune build
Does feather work with Async or Lwt?
There is a feather_async
library that lets you use Feather in Async code! There is not an Lwt
equivalent yet, but the Async wrapper is very small so I would guess the
Lwt one would be too.
How does this compare to other shell-scripting libraries, namely Shexp?
Shexp is the main alternative
within the OCaml ecosystem. Shexp is more fully-featured, provides more
control over how processes launch, and is much better tested in general.
Feather differs in design from Shexp mainly because it favors a direct
style over a monadic one. In Shexp you incrementally construct a
'a Shexp_process.t, parametrized over the type you want. On the other
Feather.cmd is not parametrized: you run it to get a string
which can be parsed directly by OCaml later. No monads in sight!
As a comparison, say you wanted to count the number of characters from
"ls" using Shexp:
let (number_of_chars : int Shexp_process.t) = let%map.Shexp_process _, stdout = Shexp_process.run "ls"  |> Shexp_process.capture [ Stdout ] in String.length stdout in let length = Shexp_process.eval number_of_chars in print_int length
or another way using
let ( let+ ) x f = Shexp_process.bind x ~f let () = let open Shexp_process.Infix in eval (Shexp_process.call [ "ls" ] |- let+ s = Shexp_process.read_all in print_int (String.length s))
...and here is the equivalent Feather:
let length = Feather.process "ls"  |> Feather.collect stdout |> String.length in print_int length