Part of the Jane Street's PPX rewriters collection.
Published: 02 Jun 2023
ppx_optcomp - Optional compilation for OCaml
ppx_optcomp stands for Optional Compilation. It is a tool used to handle optional compilations of pieces of code depending of the word size, the version of the compiler, ...
The syntax is based on OCaml item extension nodes, with keywords similar to cpp.
[%%if ocaml_version < (4, 02, 0)] let x = 1 [%%else] let y = 2 [%%endif]
ppx_optcomp is implemented using ppx_driver and operates on ocaml AST. This means that whole file needs to be grammatically correct ocaml.
The general syntax is:
Most of the statements are only supported on the toplevel. See grammar description for detailed information where
[%% ] directives may be placed.
Note in particular that the item extensions cannot be placed inside an expression, and this would result in syntax error.
(* SYNTAX ERROR: let x = [%%if defined(abc) ] 1 [%%else] 2 [%%endif] *)
Additional syntax is provided for optional type variant declaration, as in
type t = | FOO | BAR [@if ocaml_version < (4, 02, 0)]
We also allow:
]. This will define identifier to
(). The undefined identifiers are not valid in subsequent expressions, but for expression
), which evaluates to false.
The scope of identifiers follows the same scoping rules as OCaml variables. For instance:
(* [x] is undefined *) [%%define x 0] (* [x] is bound to  *) module A = struct (* [x] is bound to  *) [%%define x 42] (* [x] is bound to  *) end (* [x] is bound to  *)
The following directives are available for conditional compilations:
In all cases expression must be an expression that evaluates to a boolean value. Ppx_optcomp will fail if it is not the case.
) may be then used in expressions to check whether a given identifier has been defined. Note that identifiers that were not defined or undefined beforehand are assumed to be a typo, and therefore are rejected, with a notable exception of
[%%ifndef FOO] [%%define FOO]
which is allowed even if
FOO was not seen before.
The last form may be used only in type-variant definitions and pattern matching, following constructors which are to be optional. If you need a few constructors under the same condition, you need to copy the directive multiple times, sorry.
type t = | A of int | B of int * int [@if ocaml >= 4.04] ... match (v: t) with | A x -> something x | B (y,z) [@if ocaml >= 4.04] -> something' y z
Warnings and errors
[%%warning _string_] will cause the pre-processor to print a message on stderr.
[%%error _string_] will cause the pre-processor to fail with the following error message.
Note that in both cases expression can be an arbitrary expression.
Ppx_optcomp allows one to import another file using:
where filename is a string constant. Filenames to import are resolved as follow:
if filename is relative, i.e. doesn't start with
/, it is considered as relative to the directory of the file being parsed
if filename is absolute, i.e. starts with
/, it is used as is
Only optcomp directives are allowed in the imported files. The intended use is including some configuration variables at the beginning of a file:
If imported file's extension is
.h, an alternate C-like syntax is expected in the file. This is to allow importing both from C and OCaml single configuration file like:
#ifndef CONFIG_H #define CONFIG_H #define FOO #undef BAR #define BAZ 3*3 + 3 #endif
Expressions and patterns
ppx_optcomp supports a subset of OCaml expressions and patterns:
literals: integers, characters and strings
And it provides the following functions:
not_defined: check whether a variable is defined
show: act as identity, but pretty-print a value to stderr
Used by (22)
>= "0.12.0" & < "1.0.0"